The Davidic Covenant refers to God’s promises to David through Nathan the  prophet and is found in 2 Samuel 7 and later summarized in 1 Chronicles  17:11-14 and 2  Chronicles 6:16. This is an unconditional covenant made between God and  David through which God promises David and Israel that the Messiah (Jesus  Christ) would come from the lineage of David and the tribe of Judah and would  establish a kingdom that would endure forever (2 Samuel  7:10-13). The Davidic Covenant is unconditional because God does not place  any conditions of obedience upon its fulfillment. The surety of the promises  made rests solely on God’s faithfulness and does not depend at all on David or  Israel’s obedience.

The Davidic Covenant centers on several key promises  that are made to David. 1) God reaffirms the promise of the land that He made in  the first two covenants with Israel (the Abrahamic and Mosaic Covenants). This  promise is seen in 2 Samuel  7:10, “Moreover I will appoint a place for My people Israel, and will plant  them, that they may dwell in a place of their own and move no more; nor shall  the sons of wickedness oppress them anymore, as previously.” 2) God promises  that David’s descendant or “seed” will succeed him as king of Israel and that  David’s throne will be established forever. This promise is seen in 2 Samuel 7:12-13, “I  will set up your seed after you, who will come from your body, and I will  establish his kingdom. He shall build a house for My name, and I will establish  the throne of his kingdom forever.” This is a reference to the coming Messiah,  Jesus Christ.

The provisions of the covenant are summarized in 2 Samuel 7:16, “And your  house and your kingdom shall be established forever before you. Your throne  shall be established forever.” The promise that David’s “house,” “kingdom” and  “throne” will be established forever is significant because it shows that the  Messiah will come from the lineage of David and that He will establish a kingdom  from which He will reign. The covenant is summarized by the words “house,”  promising a dynasty in the lineage of David; “kingdom,” referring to a people  who are governed by a king; “throne,” emphasizing the authority of the king’s  rule; and “forever,” emphasizing the eternal and unconditional nature of this  promise to David and Israel.

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