Category: Who was Adam in the Bible?


  Adam was the first man to ever exist (Genesis 1:27; 1 Corinthians 15:5). He was created by God as the first human being and placed in the Garden of Eden designed just for him (Genesis 2:8, 10). Adam is the father of all mankind; every human being who has ever existed is a direct descendant of Adam, and it is through Adam that every human being has inherited a sinful nature (Romans 5:12).

God spoke everything else in the universe into existence (Genesis 1). But on the sixth day God did something different. He got down in the dirt and formed Adam from the clay (the name Adam is related to adamah, the Hebrew word for “ground” or “soil”). God then breathed His own breath into the man’s nostrils, “and man became a living soul” (Genesis 2:7). The breath of God is what separates human beings from the animal kingdom (Genesis 1:26–27). Beginning with Adam, every human being created since then has an immortal spirit as God has. God created a being so like Him that the man could reason, reflect, intuit, and choose his own paths.

The first woman, Eve, was made from one of Adam’s ribs (Genesis 2:21–22). God placed them in His perfect world, with only one restriction: they were not to eat of the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil (Genesis 2:16–17). The option for Adam to disobey had to be present, because without that right to choose, human beings would not be completely free. God respects what He has created to such an extent that He will not allow even His overwhelming love to violate our free will.

Genesis 3 details the account of Adam’s choice to sin. Both Adam and Eve disobeyed God’s command and ate of the tree which the Lord had forbidden (verse 6). In that one act of disobedience, they brought sin and all of its consequences into God’s perfect world. Through Adam, sin entered the world, and with sin came death (Genesis 3:19, 21; Romans 5:12).

We know that Adam was an actual person, not an allegory, because he is referred to as a real personage throughout the rest of the Bible (Genesis 5:1; Romans 5:12–17). Luke, the great historian, traces the lineage of Jesus all the way back to this one man (Luke 3:38). In addition to his being a real person, Adam is also the prototype for all human beings to come. Prophets, priests, and kings, born with a sin nature, were all children of the first Adam. Jesus, virgin-born and sinless, is “the second Adam” (1 Corinthians 15:47). The first Adam brought sin into the world; the second brought life (John 1:4). Jesus, our second Adam, offers a new birth (John 3:3) with a new nature and new life for whoever believes (2 Corinthians 5:17; John 3:16–18). Adam lost paradise; Jesus will regain it.

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  The concept of a pre-Adamic race is the idea that God created a race  of humans who lived on the Earth before He created Adam, the first man. This  hypothesis has been promoted by various scholars at various times throughout  history. Roman Emperor Julian the Apostate (circa A.D. 331–363) and Calvinist  theologian Isaac de La Peyrère (1596-1676) are two notable examples.

We  will look at two popular facets of the Preadamite Hypothesis: the hypothesis as  it was proposed by Isaac de La Peyrère and the form which it takes in the “Gap  Theory” (also known as the Ruin-Reconstruction interpretation). According to La  Peyrère, God created the Gentiles on the sixth day when He said, “Let us make  man in our image” (Genesis  1:26). He did not create the Jews until after the seventh day, His day of  rest. At some point after the seventh day, God created Adam, the father of the  Jews.

La Peyrère cited Scripture to support his hypothesis. Cain’s fear  of being lynched, his marriage to an unknown woman and the fact that he founded  a city (Genesis  4:14-17) are all interpreted as evidence that another race of men coexisted  with Adam and his family.

La Peyrère subsequently reinterpreted other  passages of Scripture in light of his peculiar understanding of the Genesis  account. Consider a very familiar passage, Romans  5:12-14: “Therefore, just as through one man sin entered into the world, and  death through sin, and so death spread to all men, because all sinned—for until  the Law sin was in the world, but sin is not imputed when there is no law.  Nevertheless death reigned from Adam until Moses, even over those who had not  sinned in the likeness of the offense of Adam, who is a type of Him who was to  come.”

This passage is traditionally interpreted as meaning that death  began with Adam’s sin and reigned unchecked among men (even among those who  haven’t actually eaten the forbidden fruit, those who have sinned but not “in  the likeness of the offense of Adam”) until the Law was given to Moses. La  Peyrère interpreted this passage another way. According to La Peyrère, the  pre-Adamic Gentiles sinned against God, but in a manner less egregious than Adam  (which is why Adam’s sin brought death while theirs didn’t). They merely sinned  against God’s moral will, while Adam sinned against His Law. Adam disobeyed  God’s prohibition by eating the forbidden fruit. He broke what La Peyrère called  the Law of Paradise. Thus, according to La Peyrère, the pre-Adamic Gentiles were  those who “had not sinned in the likeness of the offense of Adam.”

By now  it’s obvious how misinterpreting one or two passages of Scripture can lead to  all kinds of warped perceptions. The Scriptural problems with La Peyrère’s  interpretations are numerous.

First, Adam is called the “first man” (1  Corinthians 15:45). This is inconsistent with the idea that God created men  before Adam. Second, according to La Peyrère, the Gentiles were to live outside  of the Garden of Eden while Adam enjoyed paradise (a privilege which came with  the responsibility of obeying the Law of Paradise—not eating the forbidden  fruit). Genesis  2:5-8, however, says quite plainly that before God created “the man whom He  had formed,” the very same man which He placed in the garden, there were no men  upon the earth to cultivate the ground. Third, God created Eve for Adam because  he was alone, there was no one else like him around (“It is not good for the man  to be alone… but for Adam there was not found a helper suitable for him” Genesis 2:18, 20). Fourth, Adam named his  wife “Eve” “because she was the mother of all the living” (Genesis 3:20). The list  goes on, but these passages should suffice to refute La Peyrère’s  misinterpretation.

As for Cain’s fear of being lynched, his marriage to  an unknown woman and the fact that he founded a city (Genesis 4:14-17), Adam  was almost 130 years old by the time that Cain killed Abel (Adam had Seth, his  next son after Abel’s death, when he was about 130 years old; Genesis 4:25; 5:3). And we know that Adam had sons and daughters (Genesis 5:3). At 130 he  could have had grandkids and great-grandkids by the time that Cain killed Abel.  Cain had plenty of family members to be afraid of after killing his  brother.

Cain apparently married a family member (a necessity back then)  at some point before Abel’s murder. It seems odd to us today, but incest wasn’t  outlawed by God until the Law of Moses. It may have been around that time that  generations of degenerative genetic mutations began to take a toll on our DNA.  God outlawed incest for our protection. It became (and remains) dangerous for  close relatives to procreate because of shared genetic defects which become  expressed in their children causing severe deformities and other  problems.

As for Cain founding a city, if he lived to be the average age  back then, he probably lived to be about 900 years old. By the time he died, his  family would have been a small city. If Cain had a child at the age of 30, and  his child had a child at the age of 30 and so on, Cain could have produced 30  generations by the time he died (30 generations times 30 years each equals 900  years).

The Ruin-Reconstruction interpretation takes a somewhat  different approach to the pre-Adamic race theory. According to the Gap Theory,  an unspecified amount of time passed between Genesis 1:1 and 1:2, during  which God created a pre-Adamic race of men who lived upon the earth until God  destroyed them in judgment. Other extinct creatures, like the dinosaurs, are  said to have also lived during this time. Afterwards, the theory goes, God  remodeled the earth in six days. He created Adam on the sixth day, and the rest  is history. Some say that Satan’s fall occurred at some point during the  ambiguous gap.

A “mistranslation” has contributed to the case for this  misinterpretation. In the King James Version of the Bible, God says to Adam, “Be  fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth.” Proponents of the Gap Theory  emphasize the word “replenish.” They interpret the text as saying that Adam and  Eve were to refill the Earth. They were to fill it again. The problem with this  view is that, regardless of what it says in English translations, the Hebrew  word is mâlê’, and it simply means “to fill” or “to be full.” Moreover,  the English translators of the King James Version knew the word means “to fill.”  They chose “replenish” because, in 17th-century Elizabethan English, “replenish”  meant “to fill” (similar to how in modern English the word “replete” doesn’t  mean to “abound again,” it simply means “abundant” or “abounding”). Language is  not static, but dynamic. Words change meaning over time. Today “replenish” means  “to fill again.” It didn’t mean the same thing in 17th century England. Nearly  all modern translations translate mâlê’ as simply “fill” in the passage  in question (Genesis  1:28).

Proponents of the Gap Theory respond by pointing out that God  said to Noah after the flood, “Be fruitful and multiply, and fill [mâlê’]  the earth” (Genesis  9:1). It is evident that Noah was meant to refill the earth after the flood.  Can’t we then interpret the same command to Adam to mean the same thing—that  Adam was to repopulate the earth after God’s judgment? The fact is that,  regardless what the condition of the planet was before Noah’s flood, God didn’t  tell Noah to “refill” the Earth. He simply said to fill it. God chose the words  He chose and no others. If He said “refill,” that would have been something, but  since He just said “fill,” that argument falls flat.

The real problem  with the Gap Theory is that it places human mortality (pre-Adamic human  mortality) before Adam’s sin. The Bible is quite clear that death entered in  through Adam’s sin. “For since by a man came death, by a man also came the  resurrection of the dead. For as in Adam all die, so also in Christ all will be  made alive” (1  Corinthians 15:21-22). Regardless of whether or not we believe in animal  mortality before sin, the Bible is quite explicit about human mortality before  Adam’s sin. There wasn’t any. To deny this is to deny a central Christian  doctrine.