The “daughter of Zion” is  mentioned several times in the Old Testament, usually in prophecy and once in  poetry. “Zion” meant Jerusalem and, later, Israel as the people of God.  “Daughter of Zion,” then, does not refer to a specific person. It’s a metaphor  for Israel and the loving, caring, patient relationship God has with His chosen  people.

As a representation of the people of Israel, the daughter of  Zion is described in several different situations:

2 Kings 19:21: A people  confident in the deliverance of their God. When Assyria threatened Jerusalem,  King Hezekiah went to the Lord. In response, God sent Isaiah to reassure  Hezekiah that Jerusalem would not fall to Assyria, and God considered the  threatening insult to “the virgin daughter of Zion” as a personal affront to  Himself.

Isaiah 1:8: A  hut, abandoned after judgment came to an evil family. Here, Isaiah compares the  rebellion of Judah to a sick body in a devastated land. The daughter of Zion is  left as a lone remnant—a shelter hidden in the vineyard or a hut in a cucumber  field that barely escaped destruction.

Jeremiah  4:31: A woman in labor, helpless before attackers. The steadfastness of  Hezekiah was rare in Judah—most kings encouraged rebellion against God instead  of loyalty to God. Jeremiah warns that if the nation does not turn away from  evil, God will punish them severely. And the people will be helpless against  it—as helpless as a woman in labor.

Isaiah  62:11: A people awaiting salvation. After the punishment of exile, God  promises restoration to Israel. He will rejoice over His chosen people again.  And in verse 11, he promises the daughter of Zion, “Lo, your salvation comes;  behold His reward is with Him, and His recompense before Him.”

Micah 4:13: A bull that threshes his enemies. In verse  10, God warns that the daughter of Zion will suffer as much as a woman in labor.  But in verse 13, He promises vengeance. The weak, powerless woman will become a  bull with horns of iron and hoofs of bronze that will crush its  enemies.

Zechariah  9:9: A land awaiting its king. This prophecy promises Israel’s enemies will  be destroyed, but also speaks about a more permanent solution to the problem of  sin. “Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion! Should in triumph, O daughter of  Jerusalem! Behold, your king is coming to you; he is just and endowed with  salvation, humble, and mounted on a donkey, even on a colt, the foal of a  donkey.” Despite the consistent rebellion of the daughter of Zion against her  Father, He promises to restore her and present her with a Deliverer-King in the  form of Jesus.

“Daughter” infers that God is a loving father. He  cherishes and loves His people, even while they reject Him. By using the  metaphor “daughter of Zion,” God showed how He felt for the rebellious  Israelites: frustrated, angry, but always with an eye to the future when the  relationship would be restored, and He could once again return to them and  welcome them into His arms (Zechariah  2:10).