A study of the Lord’s Supper is  a soul-stirring experience because of the depth of meaning it contains. It was  during the age-old celebration of the Passover on the eve of His death that  Jesus instituted a significant new fellowship meal that we observe to this day.  It is an integral part of Christian worship. It causes us to remember our Lord’s  death and resurrection and to look for His glorious return in the  future.

The Passover was the most sacred feast of the Jewish religious  year. It commemorated the final plague on Egypt when the firstborn of the  Egyptians died and the Israelites were spared because of the blood of a lamb  that was sprinkled on their doorposts. The lamb was then roasted and eaten with  unleavened bread. God’s command was that throughout the generations to come the  feast would be celebrated. The story is recorded in Exodus 12.

During  the Last Supper—a Passover celebration—Jesus took a loaf of bread and gave  thanks to God. As He broke it and gave it to His disciples, He said, “’This is  my body given for you; do this in remembrance of me.’ In the same way, after the  supper he took the cup, saying, ‘This cup is the new covenant in my blood, which  is poured out for you’” (Luke  22:19-21). He concluded the feast by singing a hymn (Matthew 26:30), and they  went out into the night to the Mount of Olives. It was there that Jesus was  betrayed, as predicted, by Judas. The following day He was crucified.

The accounts of the Lord’s Supper are found in the Gospels (Matthew 26:26-29; Mark 14:17-25; Luke 22:7-22; and John 13:21-30). The  apostle Paul wrote concerning the Lord’s Supper in 1  Corinthians 11:23-29. Paul includes a statement not found in the Gospels:  “Therefore, whoever eats the bread or drinks the cup of the Lord in an unworthy  manner will be guilty of sinning against the body and blood of the Lord. A man  ought to examine himself before he eats of the bread and drinks of the cup. For  anyone who eats and drinks without recognizing the body of the Lord eats and  drinks judgment on himself” (1  Corinthians 11:27-29). We may ask what it means to partake of the bread and  the cup “in an unworthy manner.” It may mean to disregard the true meaning of  the bread and cup and to forget the tremendous price our Savior paid for our  salvation. Or it may mean to allow the ceremony to become a dead and formal  ritual or to come to the Lord’s Supper with unconfessed sin. In keeping with  Paul’s instruction, we should examine ourselves before eating the bread and  drinking the cup.

Another statement Paul made that is not included in  the gospel accounts is “For whenever you eat this bread and drink this cup, you  proclaim the Lord’s death until He comes” (1  Corinthians 11:26). This places a time limit on the ceremony—until our  Lord’s return. From these brief accounts we learn how Jesus used two of the  frailest of elements as symbols of His body and blood and initiated them to be a  monument to His death. It was not a monument of carved marble or molded brass,  but of bread and wine.

He declared that the bread spoke of His body  which would be broken. There was not a broken bone, but His body was so badly  tortured that it was hardly recognizable (Psalm  22:12-17; Isaiah  53:4-7). The wine spoke of His blood, indicating the terrible death He would  soon experience. He, the perfect Son of God, became the fulfillment of the  countless Old Testament prophecies concerning a Redeemer (Genesis 3:15; Psalm 22;  Isaiah 53). When He said, “Do this in remembrance of me,” He indicated this was  a ceremony that must be continued in the future. It indicated also that the  Passover, which required the death of a lamb and looked forward to the coming of  the Lamb of God who would take away the sin of the world, was fulfilled in the  Lord’s Supper. The New Covenant replaced the Old Covenant when Christ, the  Passover Lamb (1  Corinthians 5:7), was sacrificed (Hebrews  8:8-13). The sacrificial system was no longer needed (Hebrews 9:25-28). The  Lord’s Supper/Christian Communion is a remembrance of what Christ did for us and  a celebration of what we receive as a result of His sacrifice.