The doctrine of the virgin birth is crucially important (Isaiah 7:14; Matthew  1:23; Luke 1:27, 34). First, let’s look at how  Scripture describes the event. In response to Mary’s question, “How will this  be?” (Luke 1:34),  Gabriel says, “The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most  High will overshadow you” (Luke 1:35).  The angel encourages Joseph to not fear marrying Mary with these words: “What is  conceived in her is from the Holy Spirit” (Matthew  1:20). Matthew states that the virgin “was found to be with child through  the Holy Spirit” (Matthew  1:18). Galatians  4:4 also teaches the Virgin Birth: “God sent His Son, born of a  woman.”

From these passages, it is certainly clear that Jesus’ birth was  the result of the Holy Spirit working within Mary’s body. The immaterial (the  Spirit) and the material (Mary’s womb) were both involved. Mary, of course,  could not impregnate herself, and in that sense she was simply a “vessel.” Only  God could perform the miracle of the Incarnation.

However, denying a  physical connection between Mary and Jesus would imply that Jesus was not truly  human. Scripture teaches that Jesus was fully human, with a physical body like  ours. This He received from Mary. At the same time, Jesus was fully God, with an  eternal, sinless nature (John 1:14; 1 Timothy  3:16; Hebrews  2:14-17.)

Jesus was not born in sin; that is, He had no sin nature  (Hebrews  7:26). It would seem that the sin nature is passed down from generation to  generation through the father (Romans 5:1217, 19). The Virgin Birth circumvented the transmission of  the sin nature and allowed the eternal God to become a perfect man.