It is often claimed that “God instituted the Sabbath in Eden” because of the  connection between the Sabbath and creation in Exodus  20:11. Although God’s rest on the seventh day (Genesis 2:3)  did foreshadow a future Sabbath law, there is no biblical record of the Sabbath  before the children of Israel left the land of Egypt. Nowhere in Scripture is  there any hint that Sabbath-keeping was practiced from Adam to Moses.

The Word of God makes it quite clear that Sabbath observance was a special sign  between God and Israel: “The Israelites are to observe the Sabbath, celebrating  it for the generations to come as a lasting covenant. It will be a sign between  me and the Israelites forever, for in six days the Lord made the heavens and the  earth, and on the seventh day he abstained from work and rested” (Exodus  31:16–17).

In Deuteronomy 5, Moses restates the Ten Commandments to  the next generation of Israelites. Here, after commanding Sabbath observance in  verses 12–14, Moses gives the reason the Sabbath was given to the nation Israel:  “Remember that you were slaves in Egypt and that the Lord your God brought you  out of there with a mighty hand and an outstretched arm. Therefore the Lord your  God has commanded you to observe the Sabbath day” (Deuteronomy  5:15).

God’s intent for giving the Sabbath to Israel was not that  they would remember creation, but that they would remember their Egyptian  slavery and the Lord’s deliverance. Note the requirements for Sabbath-keeping: A  person placed under that Sabbath law could not leave his home on the Sabbath (Exodus 16:29), he could not  build a fire (Exodus  35:3), and he could not cause anyone else to work (Deuteronomy 5:14). A  person breaking the Sabbath law was to be put to death (Exodus 31:15; Numbers  15:32–35).

An examination of New Testament passages shows us four  important points: 1) Whenever Christ appears in His resurrected form and the day  is mentioned, it is always the first day of the week (Matthew 28:1, 9, 10; Mark 16:9; Luke 24:1, 13, 15; John 20:1926). 2) The only time the  Sabbath is mentioned from Acts through Revelation it is for evangelistic  purposes to the Jews and the setting is usually in a synagogue (Acts chapters  13–18). Paul wrote, “to the Jews I became as a Jew, that I might win Jews” (1  Corinthians 9:20). Paul did not go to the synagogue to fellowship with and  edify the saints, but to convict and save the lost. 3) Once Paul states “from  now on I will go to the Gentiles” (Acts 18:6),  the Sabbath is never again mentioned. And 4) instead of suggesting adherence to  the Sabbath day, the remainder of the New Testament implies the opposite  (including the one exception to point 3 above, found in Colossians  2:16).

Looking more closely at point 4 above will reveal that there  is no obligation for the New Testament believer to keep the Sabbath, and will  also show that the idea of a Sunday “Christian Sabbath” is also unscriptural. As  discussed above, there is one time the Sabbath is mentioned after Paul began to  focus on the Gentiles, “Therefore do not let anyone judge you by what you eat or  drink, or with regard to a religious festival, a New Moon celebration or a  Sabbath day. These are a shadow of the things that were to come; the reality,  however, is found in Christ.” (Colossians 2:16–17). The Jewish Sabbath was abolished at  the cross where Christ “canceled the written code, with its regulations” (Colossians  2:14).

This idea is repeated more than once in the New Testament:  “One man considers one day more sacred than another; another man considers every  day alike. Each one should be fully convinced in his own mind. He who regards  one day as special, does so to the Lord” (Romans  14:5–6a). “But now that you know God — or rather are known by God — how is  it that you are turning back to those weak and miserable principles? Do you wish  to be enslaved by them all over again? You are observing special days and months  and seasons and years” (Galatians  4:9–10).

But some claim that a mandate by Constantine in A.D. 321  “changed” the Sabbath from Saturday to Sunday. On what day did the early church  meet for worship? Scripture never mentions any Sabbath (Saturday) gatherings by  believers for fellowship or worship. However, there are clear passages that  mention the first day of the week. For instance, Acts 20:7 states that “on the first day of the week we came together to break bread.” In  1  Corinthians 16:2 Paul urges the Corinthian believers “on the first day of  every week, each one of you should set aside a sum of money in keeping with his  income.” Since Paul designates this offering as “service” in 2 Corinthians 9:12,  this collection must have been linked with the Sunday worship service of the  Christian assembly. Historically Sunday, not Saturday, was the normal meeting  day for Christians in the church, and its practice dates back to the first  century.

The Sabbath was given to Israel, not the church. The Sabbath is  still Saturday, not Sunday, and has never been changed. But the Sabbath is part  of the Old Testament Law, and Christians are free from the bondage of the Law  (Galatians  4:1-26; Romans  6:14). Sabbath keeping is not required of the Christian—be it Saturday or  Sunday. The first day of the week, Sunday, the Lord’s Day (Revelation 1:10)  celebrates the New Creation, with Christ as our resurrected Head. We are not  obligated to follow the Mosaic Sabbath—resting, but are now free to follow the  risen Christ—serving. The Apostle Paul said that each individual Christian  should decide whether to observe a Sabbath rest, “One man considers one day more  sacred than another; another man considers every day alike. Each one should be  fully convinced in his own mind” (Romans  14:5). We are to worship God every day, not just on Saturday or  Sunday.